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Month: July 2018

Zimbardo & Boyd – 1991 – Putting Time in Perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric

Summary: Seminal paper that initiated a nearly two decade research agenda on temporality that is grounded in Lewin’s field theory. The paper introduces Time Perspective (TP) Theory, a psychosocial construct used to encode, store, and recall experienced events as well as to anticipate future events. TP Theory describes a non-conscious process of cognitive frames, concrete and abstract representations, and learned experiences which help to give meaning and order to everyday life. TP theory provides guidance on how individual time perspective profile types — past, present and future — affect the way people interpret and interact with temporal information. The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) is an empirically tested Likert scale that measures the various social, emotional, cognitive and motivational processes that contribute to and influence the ways people relate to time. The ZPTI was also found to be both a valid and reliable predictor of other temporally-related psychological factors (both positive as in goal setting, achievement, etc., and negative as in addiction, guilt, etc.).

Synthesis: Identifies time perspective as both a state and a trait. Claims that temporal bias results from habitual overuse/underuse of past, present or future temporal frames. Introduces the idea of optimal time shifting to incorporate various environmental forces for a healthier, more holistic approach to sensemaking. This fits with the idea that situational time perspective shifting is not only possible and be preferred. What are the heuristics and/or design implications for evoking more ideal time shifting behaviors and outcomes?

Bluedorn – 2002 – Polychronicity (Chapter 3)

Summary: Deep, conceptual discussion of polychronicity — a mental activity and overt behavior that describes a continuum of activity patterns by two levels of analysis: individuals and groups. In short, polychronicity is “the extent to which people (1) prefer to be engaged in two or more tasks or events simultaneously and are actually so engaged (the preference strongly implying the behavior and vice versa), and (2) believe their preference is the best way to do things.”


Bluedorn – 2002 – Temporal realities (Chapter 2)

Summary: Discussion of ways people experience temporality in different ways — as equivalent/homogeneous fungible moments and distinct/heterogeneous epochal times. In each case, these temporal realities help to coordinate social activities and convey meanings about them through relatedness/contrasts. Adam, Giddens, McGrath, and Orlikowski are cited.